valuation under income

FIFO and LIFO are methods used in the cost of goods sold calculations in financial accounting. FIFO stands for First in First out and it assumes that the oldest products / materials / items in a company’s inventory have been sold first and goes by those production costs. These methods are used to manage assumptions of costs related to inventory, stock repurchases , and various other accounting purposes.  Last in, first out is a method used to account for inventory.  Under LIFO, the costs of the most recent products purchased are the first to be expensed.  LIFO is used only in the United States and governed by the generally accepted accounting principles .

This system is generally used by companies whose inventory is perishable or subject to quick obsolescence. If prices go up, FIFO will give you a lower cost of goods sold because you are using your older, cheaper goods first. Your bottom line will look better to your investors, if you have any, but your tax liability will be higher because you have higher profit. A positive about the FIFO method is that it represents recent purchases and, as such, more accurately reflects replacement costs.

It was ideal for Kapoor Mart to use Specific Identification Method. This is because actual costs matched with the actual revenue. It simply means that the cost flow matched the physical flow of goods. The dilemma is what price should be used to calculate the cost of ending inventory of 6,000 units. These respondents belonged to industries ranging from Chemicals, Pharma to Cement and Furniture. Eventually, the study revealed that 62% of the firms used First In First Out Method to evaluate inventory.

average method

In FIFO it is assumed that inventory items are sold in the order which they are manufactured or purchased. FIFO method is generally adopted by most of the organizations which shows the actual flow of goods are manufactured. With this method, the cost of goods is updated when the goods are received in the warehouse. Publicly-traded U.S. companies choosing LIFO for taxation also need to use it for financial reporting. The FIFO method and LIFO method are the most popular for inventory management. LIFO Method assumes that recent goods purchased are consumed first and the goods purchased first are consumed later.

This reserve is the amount by which a company’s taxable income is deferred, as compared to the FIFO method. For example, if we sell computers/ laptops, then the FIFO method would work best, as we don’t want the old stock to sit there and fall into obsolescence. While if we sell fresh cakes, the LIFO method would work better.

Cost of Goods and Ending Inventory are calculated using Weighted Average Method for companies using Periodic Inventory Method. Profit or loss in material arises as total cost incurred usually does not become equal to the total charges. Issue price cannot be affected considerably by the fluctuations in prices of purchase. Stock verifier of the factory noted on 15th a shortage of 5kgs. Write out the complete Store ledger account in respect of the above motives for February, 2004.

The prices that a Company pays for its inventory often fluctuate and these fluctuating costs must be taken into account regardless of which method a business uses.  FIFO provides a better indication of the value of ending inventory , but it also increases net income because inventory that might be several years old is used to value COGS. Increasing net income sounds good, but it can increase the taxes that a company must pay.

Inventory Valuation Methods

The total quantity of sales made during a month come from the latest purchases if a company uses periodic inventory system. This is because business cannot choose certain cost item and take it as an expense. In other words, items purchased first need to be charged first. So, the average cost method is used widely as it is simple to use.

Average cost method is suitable for the condition when different lots of purchases get mixed up so that the identification is not possible. The disadvantages of this method are the same as those of the FIFO method, namely, excessive clerical labour and differing costs of similar jobs using similar materials. In case of rising prices the method has the advantage of showing a lower profit which may help in saving tax to some extent.

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What is LIFO method | Advantages and Disadvantages

It is not without reason that this method has come into use only when prices have been steadily rising. In case of a rising price, the LIFO method is suitable because the material is issued at the current price. The fact is Last In, First Out is only one used in the United States where all three inventory-costing methods can be used under the GAAP although, the forbids the use of the LIFO method.

The amendments will take practical form in the assessment years 2023 to 2024. The financial year of 1st April 2023 starts with an additional report from the cost accountant for statutory audit. The blog brings to the table valuable information about inventory management. Inventory valuation refers to the process of assigning a monetary value to the goods or products that a business holds in its inventory at a specific point in time.

And it can provide a more accurate picture of inventory costs. According to this method, a weighted average is used to determine the amount charged to the cost of items sold and inventory. The weighted average cost method divides the price of items available for sale by the number of available items. In periods of falling prices FTh’O method will result in production being relatively overcharged, resulting in deflating the profits and reducing the income tax liability. Production will be charged at the most recent prices of purchase of materials or goods, resulting in inflating of profits and increasing the tax liability.

Suitability for different industries and business sizes

The reverse will be the case in case of periods of falling prices. In the 2023 budget, there is a mention of the valuation of inventory by the cost accountant. According to section 68 of the Income tax act, inventory valuation is done by a cost accountant. Section 2 of the cost and works accountants explain that a cost accountant is a person holding a certification of practice. The sub-section states that the assessing office instructs the assessor to get the valuation from the cost accountant.

I) It provides the most accurate COGS and inventory valuation. Iii) LIFO is not allowed for tax purposes in India, which can cause discrepancies between accounting records and tax returns. LIFO is preferred in product-based companies which does not deal in consumable items.

This results in a reduced margin of lifo method in cost accounting resulting in tax deduction. The value of closing stock does not reflect the current market price as all the rates of latest purchased materials are used for issue purpose. Closing stock is valued at old rates but not at the current rates of materials. FIFO – means the first item of the row / bucket will be sold out first from the inventory.

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Under LIFO, the cost of the most recent products purchased are the first to be expensed as cost of goods sold , which means the lower cost of older products will be reported as inventory. In other words, if a customer places an order for your tent, the $30 tents are sold through first. A company manufacturing automobiles deals in manual cards, automatic cards and hybrid cars. If the company gets an order that it requires 100 units, a specification of the variant would have to be attained. As the product variants vary in terms of features and specifications, they have to be tracked individually. Unlike FIFO, LIFO, or Average Cost Method, the Specific Identification approach allows for flexibility in what order inventory is used without losing any accuracy in the value calculation.

This method closely mirrors the natural flow of inventory in many businesses. Mainly LIFO is used to leverage taxation benefits to manage impact of inflation. As well LIFO supports investors with better investment decisions based on current market conditions. Most businesses use FIFO for material flow to avoid old products stock up in the warehouse as well as easy physical flow of stocks. In this method, most recently produced items are recorded as sold first. This is why in periods of rising prices, LIFO creates higher costs and lowers net income, which also reduces taxable income.

  • Also, it is difficult to manipulate net income under this inventory pricing method.
  • Original cost is the cost at which the asset is being acquired by the company.
  • In inventory management, the most recently manufactured products are reflected as sold first using the LIFO approach.
  • By doing the CMA course, engineers get foreign opportunities.
  • As the economy changes over time, you will learn how to optimize sales and sell at the most profitable rate.

The rest of the items in inventory are matched to the most recently purchased items. Under this method, in times of rising prices, quotation of prices for company product will be safe and profitable. Advantages of FIFO and LIFO- FIFO is considered to be a lot more simplified system than LIFO.

 Other methods to account for inventory include first in, first out and the average cost method.  Using LIFO typically lowers net income but is tax advantageous when prices are rising. Both are generally accepted accounting practices in the United States, but each method assumes different ways of storing and selling goods. In this article, we explain what FIFO and LIFO are and how they differ. We also offer an example of how each is used to value the cost of goods sold.

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If inventory costs are rising or are going to rise if you consider them, then go for the LIFO method as the high-cost items will be sold with rising costs. Inventory valuation plays a crucial role in the financial health and reporting of Indian businesses. Regular reviews, audits, and leveraging technology can help ensure accurate inventory valuation and compliance with tax and accounting regulations.

First-in, first-out , and average cost are two more approaches to inventory accounting. One way of calculating the costs of stock is called last-in, first-out , which works on the premise that the most recent purchases will be the ones to be sold off first. When valuing a company’s stock, the last-in, first-out technique requires that workers be reimbursed for the cost of goods at the price they were obtained. It takes into account the current market conditions while valuing materials issued to different jobs or calculating the cost of goods sold.

Not only do companies have to track the number of items sold, but they have to track the cost of items each item. Each will have a different effect on their financial statements. The two alternative methods of inventory-costing are the First In, First Out and LIFO . In FIFO, the oldest inventory items are recorded and sold first.


Below are a couple of examples of the LIFO method to analyze and understand its workings. This method is also quick and simple to operate particularly when prices are fairly steady. By doing the CMA course, engineers get foreign opportunities. Inventory management reduces the accumulation of unused stocks. Companies with efficient supply chain networks manage the risk connected to shortage and overstock.

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